UF physicists were leaders in the construction of LIGO and the detection of gravitational waves
By Joseph Kays and Steve Orlando

Billions of years ago, far across the universe, two massive black holes engaged in an eons-long dance, their mutual attraction drawing them closer and closer, until, in an instant, the two became one. At that moment, they emanated out ripples in space and spacetime with energy equal to three of our Suns.

A century ago, Albert Einstein imagined just such a scenario in his head and in the mathematical equations on his blackboard, but he doubted humans would ever develop a way of measuring what he knew would be infinitesimally small disturbances by the time they reached Earth.

But over the last 30 years, teams of scientists at the University of Florida, the California Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and dozens of other universities and research labs around the world have been developing just such a detector.

It’s called LIGO — the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. LIGO is a pair of 4-kilometer-long, L-shaped laser rangefinders – one in Livingston, Louisiana, and another in Hanford, Washington.

A gravitational wave reaching the Earth will stretch one arm and squeeze the other by a mere ten-thousandth the width of a proton, knocking the laser beams inside them out of sync and creating a signal that can be detected.

On Sept. 14, 2015, a computer program called Coherent WaveBurst developed by University of Florida physics Research Professor Sergey Klimenko, Professor Guenakh Mitselmakher, students and postdoctoral fellows was monitoring LIGO when it detected two signals, seven-thousandths of a second (0.007 second) apart, at the Louisiana and Washington sites.

The signals looked like just what Einstein predicted, but they seemed almost too good to be true. In fact, LIGO was still only doing test runs after a five-year upgrade.

Over the next five months, under the tightest security, LIGO scientists checked and rechecked their data, ultimately determining that the signals had to be from a gravitational wave. Using Einstein’s equations, they determined that the wave was caused by the merger of two black holes 1.3 billion light years from Earth.

As the largest project in the history of the National Science Foundation at more than $1.1 billion, NSF wanted to make sure it was announced with fanfare. So they scheduled a news conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on Feb. 11, 2016, to coincide with publication of a paper in the prestigious journal Physical Review Letters.

Before top science journalists and scientists in the room and watching online around the world, UF physics Professor David Reitze — on loan to Caltech to serve as executive director of LIGO — made the announcement: “Ladies and gentlemen, we have detected gravitational waves! We did it!”

Applause filled the room, and cyberspace:

@BarackObama: “Einstein was right! Congrats to @NSF and @LIGO on detecting gravitational waves — a huge breakthrough in how we understand the universe.”

@AlbertEinstein: “Today was a good day. #EinsteinWasRight #LIGO #GravitationalWaves”

@NSF: “Since the mid-‘70s, NSF has been funding the science that ultimately led to #LIGO’s construction. #NSFLigo Today is an exciting day!!!”

Stephen Hawking on Facebook: “My congratulations to the LIGO team on their discovery of gravitational waves … With LIGO’s increased sensitivity, we can expect many more detections, all improving our knowledge about how the universe works.”


UF researchers first became involved in LIGO in 1995, when Mitselmakher approached his colleagues about a new project being developed by Caltech and MIT. Among those who responded were Reitze and colleagues David Tanner and Bernard Whiting.

During a visit to the LIGO lab at Caltech in 1996, the four committed the University of Florida to produce LIGO’s Input Optics, one of the most complex and diverse systems in the entire interferometer. In doing so, UF was the first institution outside the original Caltech-MIT collaboration to have an essential role in LIGO.

Professors Guido Mueller and Bernard Whiting with a scaled-down version of the LIGO optics.

Since 1996, the UF group has received more than $15 million from NSF for LIGO-related research activities, including instrumentation, data analysis and gravitational theory. UF’s LIGO instrumentation team, led initially by Reitze and later by Professor Guido Mueller, has also received $4 million for the design, construction and installation of the input optics of the initial LIGO detectors and nearly $6 million for the Advanced LIGO input optics.

The Advanced LIGO detector construction was completed in late 2014. An “engineering run” began in late August 2015 so that scientists could study detector performance and, if necessary, make small changes to procedures and operating conditions. A full “science run” was scheduled to begin in late September.

On Sept. 14, everything changed.

Although still in test mode, LIGO was listening to the universe using Coherent WaveBurst when at about 5:50 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time it heard a signature “chirp,” as described by Reitze and Gabriela Gonzalez, a physics professor at LSU and the LIGO spokesperson.

Within minutes, Coherent Waveburst sent an e-mail to Klimenko and his collaborators, notifying them that it had detected an event. Klimenko was halfway through his first cup of coffee when he saw the e-mail.

“When I saw this alert I was awakened in an instant,” he says. “It was spectacular.”

Klimenko says the speed with which Coherent WaveBurst detects a signal and notifies researchers is key to detecting and understanding gravitational waves by linking LIGO observations to other astrophysical “messengers” such as light waves, cosmic rays and neutrinos.

“Such a ‘multi-messenger’ approach can reveal crucial insights into the origin, life cycle and environment of the objects that radiate the gravitational waves,” he says. “Coherent WaveBurst reconstructs the sky location of a detected gravitational-wave signal that can be promptly shared with telescopes to search for a coincident electromagnetic counterpart before it fades away.”

UF physics researchers continue to improve optics for future detectors in the department’s clean room.

The program calculated the rough sky location of the September 14 event within minutes and reported it to LIGO partner telescopes around the globe.

Since only two detectors were operational it was only able to narrow the location to a swath of sky in the Southern Hemisphere, but when a third detector goes on line in Italy later this year, the three will be able to triangulate gravitational wave events much more precisely.

This will allow UF astronomers like Stephen Eikenberry, who joined the team in 2011, to use astronomical telescopes — including the Gran Telescopio Canarias in the Canary Islands of which UF is a partner — to identify and study light from the astrophysical sources generating the waves.

Klimenko, Mitselmakher and Whiting have also developed algorithms that promise to greatly simplify the challenging task of sorting through millions of astronomical images of stars and galaxies to identify the one object which corresponds to the gravitational wave event.

These algorithms apply advances in computational data mining and machine learning, coupled with detailed UF simulations of the LIGO detector response to gravitational waves, to make this task faster, cheaper and easier to apply to a broad range of telescopes around the world.

“Four hundred years ago Galileo turned a telescope to the sky and opened the era of modern observational astronomy,” Reitz said. “I think we’re doing something equally important here today. I think we’re opening a new window on the universe, the window of gravitational wave astronomy.”

Photos By: John Jernigan

Related Websites:

This article was originally featured in the Spring 2016 issue of Explore Magazine.

小怪兽app污版下载网站 大菠萝app污版下载网站 橙子视频下载app视频污版 享爱app污版下载网站 MM直播app污版下载网站 食色app污下载安卓 盘他app污下载安卓 秀儿直播下载app视频污版 享爱app污下载安卓 本色视频app污版下载网站 食色app污版下载网站 小狐仙下载app视频污版 夜遇直播号app污下载安卓 最污直播下载app视频污版 花姿下载app视频污版 初恋直播app污版下载网站 Huluwa下载app视频污版 七仙女直播app污下载安卓 小奶狗app污版下载网站 樱桃app污版下载网站 樱桃app污下载安卓 大秀直播app污版下载网站 小草莓app污版下载网站 盘她直播下载app视频污版 橙子直播app污版下载网站 小v视频app污版下载网站 富二代f2短视频下载app视频污版 豆奶app污版下载网站 茄子直播下载app视频污版 樱花下载app视频污版 秀儿直播app污版下载网站 美岁直播app污下载安卓 恋人直播app污版下载网站 成人直播下载app视频污版 木瓜视频app污版下载网站 樱花下载app视频污版 陌秀直播下载app视频污版 葫芦娃app污版下载网站 花秀神器下载app视频污版 七仙女直播app污版下载网站 茄子app污下载安卓 初恋视频app污下载安卓 鸭脖视频app污下载安卓 望月直播app污版下载网站 火爆社区下载app视频污版 云上花app污版下载网站 梦幻直播下载app视频污版 音色短视频下载app视频污版 香蕉直播app污下载安卓 91香蕉app污版下载网站 丝瓜视频污下载app视频污版 小可爱下载app视频污版 91香蕉app污下载安卓 BB直播app污版下载网站 黄瓜视频app污版下载网站 花秀神器下载app视频污版 Huluwaapp污下载安卓 夜魅直播app污版下载网站 夜猫视频app污版下载网站 草鱼app污下载安卓 免费黃色直播app污下载安卓 樱花app污版下载网站 AVnight下载app视频污版 微啪app污下载安卓 IAVBOBOapp污版下载网站 咪哒下载app视频污版 红楼直播下载app视频污版 花粥直播app污版下载网站 遇见直播app污下载安卓 后宫app污版下载网站 富二代app污版下载网站 烟花巷下载app视频污版 盘他下载app视频污版 橘子直播下载app视频污版 成版人抖音富二代app污版下载网站 含羞草实验研究所app污下载安卓 小草视频下载app视频污版 心上人直播app污版下载网站 光棍影院app污版下载网站 富二代app污下载安卓 雨燕直播app污版下载网站 7秒鱼app污版下载网站 小v视频app污版下载网站 秀儿直播下载app视频污版 啪嗒视频app污下载安卓 金鱼直播app污下载安卓 小怪兽下载app视频污版 BB直播下载app视频污版 水晶直播app污版下载网站 初恋视频app污版下载网站 橘子视频app污下载安卓 望月下载app视频污版 荔枝视频app污下载安卓 可乐视频app污版下载网站 骚虎直播下载app视频污版 花姿直播app污版下载网站 金鱼直播app污下载安卓 樱桃直播app污下载安卓 猫咪视频下载app视频污版 丝瓜app污版下载网站 樱花雨直播下载app视频污版 盘他app污版下载网站 食色短视频下载app视频污版 蜜柚直播app污下载安卓 污直播app污版下载网站 初恋视频app污下载安卓 丝瓜视频污app污版下载网站 大小姐直播下载app视频污版 烟花巷直播app污版下载网站 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app污版下载网站 老王视频下载app视频污版 花姬直播app污版下载网站 红杏视频下载app视频污版 91直播下载app视频污版 花粥直播app污版下载网站 初恋视频下载app视频污版 欢喜视频app污版下载网站 小花螺直播下载app视频污版 冈本下载app视频污版 猛虎直播app污下载安卓 蜜橙视频app污版下载网站 柠檬直播下载app视频污版 九尾狐直播app污版下载网站 7秒鱼app污版下载网站 橙子直播app污下载安卓 樱花视频app污版下载网站 梦露直播app污下载安卓 榴莲视频app污版下载网站 樱花下载app视频污版 小小影视app污版下载网站 台湾swagapp污版下载网站 快狐短视频下载app视频污版 桃花直播app污下载安卓 夜猫视频下载app视频污版 好嗨哟直播app污版下载网站 avgoapp污版下载网站 比心直播app污下载安卓 压寨直播下载app视频污版 红颜app污版下载网站 Avbobo下载app视频污版 小狐仙视频下载app视频污版 梦露直播app污下载安卓 九尾狐视频app污下载安卓 冈本视频app污版下载网站 性福宝下载app视频污版 铁牛视频app污版下载网站 梦露直播app污版下载网站 火辣直播app污下载安卓 佳丽直播视频app污下载安卓 佳丽直播视频下载app视频污版 花姿直播app污版下载网站 探探直播app污下载安卓 橙子视频下载app视频污版 AVnightapp污版下载网站 佳丽直播视频app污下载安卓 台湾swagapp污版下载网站 黄瓜app污版下载网站 福利直播app污版下载网站 探探直播下载app视频污版 夜夜直播app污版下载网站 探探直播app污下载安卓 玉米视频app污版下载网站 花友直播app污下载安卓 萝卜视频app污版下载网站 探探直播app污版下载网站 富二代f2下载app视频污版 麻豆视频app污版下载网站 水仙直播app污下载安卓 后宫下载app视频污版 花姬app污下载安卓 尤蜜app污版下载网站 秀色直播app污版下载网站 樱花雨直播下载app视频污版 蝶恋花下载app视频污版 猫咪软件下载app视频污版 ML聚合直播下载app视频污版 小狐仙下载app视频污版 初见直播app污版下载网站 荔枝app污下载安卓 芭乐下载app视频污版 水晶直播app污版下载网站 小优app污下载安卓 红杏视频app污版下载网站 男人本色西瓜视频app污下载安卓 猫咪软件app污下载安卓 名优馆app污版下载网站 比心直播app污下载安卓 swag台湾下载app视频污版 番茄直播app污下载安卓 番茄社区app污下载安卓 红楼直播下载app视频污版 雨云直播下载app视频污版 麻豆传媒直播app污版下载网站 享爱直播app污版下载网站 fi11含羞草app污版下载网站 主播大秀app污下载安卓 swag台湾app污下载安卓 69热app污版下载网站 JOJO直播app污版下载网站 盘她s直播app污版下载网站 香蕉app污下载安卓 Huluwa下载app视频污版 皮卡丘直播app污版下载网站 盘他下载app视频污版 小奶猫app污版下载网站 茄子app污下载安卓 香草视频app污下载安卓 小狐仙视频下载app视频污版 泡泡直播app污版下载网站 红杏视频app污版下载网站 梦幻直播app污下载安卓 6房间视频直播下载app视频污版 迷雾直播app污版下载网站 午夜直播下载app视频污版 9uuapp污下载安卓 盘他app污版下载网站 黄瓜app污版下载网站 欢喜视频app污版下载网站 茶馆视频下载app视频污版 铁牛app污下载安卓 杏花直播app污版下载网站 迷雾直播app污版下载网站 小公主直播app污下载安卓 月光直播app污下载安卓 9uuapp污版下载网站 午夜直播间app污版下载网站 云上花直播app污版下载网站 葫芦娃app污版下载网站 九尾狐直播下载app视频污版 草莓直播app污版下载网站 丝瓜视频污下载app视频污版 玉米视频app污版下载网站 食色下载app视频污版 茄子视频app污下载安卓 小优下载app视频污版 午夜直播app污下载安卓 梦幻直播下载app视频污版 享受直播app污版下载网站 成版人茄子视频app污下载安卓 铁牛视频下载app视频污版 好嗨哟直播app污版下载网站 成人快手app污下载安卓 芭乐app污版下载网站 成版人茄子视频app污下载安卓 火辣直播app污下载安卓 硬汉视频下载app视频污版 麻豆传媒app污版下载网站 合欢视频app污下载安卓 咪哒直播下载app视频污版 成人直播app污下载安卓 享爱直播app污下载安卓 夜夜直播app污下载安卓 豆奶视频下载app视频污版 青青草app污版下载网站 梦幻直播app污版下载网站 梦幻直播app污版下载网站 抖阴app污下载安卓 茄子直播下载app视频污版 朵朵直播app污下载安卓 快喵app污版下载网站 芭乐视频app污下载安卓 香蕉视频app污版下载网站 骚虎直播app污版下载网站 花姿直播app污下载安卓 灭火卫视下载app视频污版 樱花直播app污下载安卓 粉色视频app污版下载网站 梦鹿直播下载app视频污版 花椒直播app污下载安卓 小蝌蚪app污下载安卓 米老鼠直播app污版下载网站 云上花app污版下载网站 迷雾直播app污版下载网站 台湾swagapp污版下载网站 可乐视频下载app视频污版 茄子直播下载app视频污版 大小姐直播下载app视频污版 91香蕉app污版下载网站 向日葵视频app污下载安卓 小猪视频app污版下载网站 蝶恋花直播app污下载安卓 JAV名优馆下载app视频污版 梦幻直播app污版下载网站 啪嗒视频app污版下载网站 金屋藏娇直播间下载app视频污版 樱桃app污下载安卓 草鱼app污版下载网站 丝瓜视频污app污版下载网站 棉花糖直播下载app视频污版 铁牛视频下载app视频污版 草莓视频app污版下载网站 91视频下载app视频污版 小米粒直播下载app视频污版 秀色直播app污版下载网站 花仙子直播下载app视频污版 免费黃色直播下载app视频污版 蓝精灵直播app污下载安卓 茄子直播app污版下载网站 大小姐直播下载app视频污版 红玫瑰直播app污版下载网站 麻豆传媒映画下载app视频污版 午夜神器app污版下载网站 蓝精灵直播app污下载安卓 食色app污版下载网站 九尾狐视频app污版下载网站 云上花直播下载app视频污版 东京视频app污下载安卓 野花视频app污下载安卓 富二代f2短视频app污下载安卓 本色视频app污下载安卓 西瓜直播app污下载安卓 享爱直播app污版下载网站 荔枝下载app视频污版 压寨直播app污版下载网站 最污直播下载app视频污版 91视频app污下载安卓 f2富二代app污下载安卓 JAV名优馆下载app视频污版 千层浪视频app污版下载网站 爱爱视频app污下载安卓 小狐仙直播app污版下载网站 草莓视频app污版下载网站 荔枝app污下载安卓 盘他下载app视频污版 鲍鱼视频下载app视频污版 f2富二代app污下载安卓 草莓app污版下载网站 可乐视频下载app视频污版 ML聚合下载app视频污版 红娘直播下载app视频污版 麻豆传媒映画下载app视频污版 草榴短视频app污下载安卓 恋人直播app污下载安卓 大西瓜视频下载app视频污版 年轻人片app污版下载网站 橙子视频下载app视频污版 小公主直播app污下载安卓 香草成视频人app污版下载网站 小米粒直播下载app视频污版 云雨直播下载app视频污版 樱花app污版下载网站 恋人直播app污下载安卓 梦露直播下载app视频污版 后宫下载app视频污版 青草视频app污下载安卓 梦露直播下载app视频污版 成版人抖音富二代下载app视频污版 番茄直播app污下载安卓 夜巴黎直播app污版下载网站 含羞草视频app污版下载网站 咪咪直播app污版下载网站 大番号app污下载安卓 小怪兽直播app污版下载网站 樱花雨直播app污版下载网站 快狐短视频app污下载安卓 小蝌蚪app污下载安卓 向日葵app污下载安卓 野花视频app污下载安卓 成版人抖音app污版下载网站 斗艳直播app污版下载网站 蜜桃app污下载安卓 花椒直播app污下载安卓 东京视频app污版下载网站 大菠萝app污下载安卓 快狐下载app视频污版 小草视频下载app视频污版 圣女直播下载app视频污版 盘她直播app污下载安卓 蘑菇视频app污版下载网站 榴莲视频app污下载安卓 木瓜视频app污版下载网站 成人快手下载app视频污版 享爱下载app视频污版 内裤直播app污版下载网站 蜜柚直播app污下载安卓 菠萝蜜视频app污版下载网站 小奶狗视频app污下载安卓 草榴短视频app污下载安卓 铁牛app污下载安卓 彩色直播app污下载安卓 小怪兽直播app污下载安卓 套路直播app污版下载网站 蜜蜂视频app污版下载网站 冈本app污版下载网站 AVnightapp污版下载网站 花心直播app污下载安卓 性直播下载app视频污版 小草视频下载app视频污版 小喵直播app污版下载网站 Kitty直播app污版下载网站 快猫app污下载安卓 铁牛app污下载安卓 抖阴直播app污下载安卓 陌秀直播app污下载安卓 梦鹿直播app污版下载网站 浪浪视频app污版下载网站 桃花app污版下载网站 AVnightapp污下载安卓 秀色小抖音app污版下载网站 啪嗒视频下载app视频污版 秀儿直播下载app视频污版 金鱼直播app污下载安卓 幸福宝下载app视频污版 春水堂视频app污版下载网站 秀色直播app污下载安卓 7秒鱼直播app污版下载网站 考拉直播app污下载安卓 鲍鱼视频app污版下载网站 粉色下载app视频污版 小怪兽直播app污版下载网站 月光直播app污下载安卓 小草视频app污下载安卓 千层浪直播app污版下载网站 奶茶视频app污下载安卓 花仙子直播下载app视频污版 望月直播app污版下载网站 Huluwa下载app视频污版 午夜神器app污下载安卓 初恋视频app污版下载网站 小狐仙直播app污版下载网站 梦幻直播app污版下载网站 BB直播app污版下载网站 荔枝app污版下载网站 黄页荔枝app污版下载网站 夜魅直播app污下载安卓 茄子直播下载app视频污版 么么直播app污版下载网站 黄色直播软件app污版下载网站 秀儿直播下载app视频污版 成人直播app污下载安卓 美岁直播app污版下载网站 夜巴黎直播app污版下载网站 小花螺直播app污下载安卓 花椒直播app污下载安卓 丝瓜草莓视频app污版下载网站 恋人直播app污下载安卓 年华直播app污版下载网站 快猫app污下载安卓 探花直播app污下载安卓 初见直播app污下载安卓 Huluwaapp污版下载网站 一对一直播app污下载安卓 麻豆视频app污版下载网站 小优下载app视频污版 富二代f2抖音下载app视频污版 媚妹秀app污版下载网站 豆奶抖音短视频app污下载安卓 主播大秀下载app视频污版 卖肉直播下载app视频污版 成人直播app污版下载网站 年华直播app污版下载网站 后宫app污版下载网站 丝瓜下载app视频污版 月亮直播app污版下载网站 木瓜视频下载app视频污版 泡芙视频app污版下载网站 91直播下载app视频污版 茄子直播app污版下载网站 黄色直播软件app污版下载网站 棉花糖直播下载app视频污版 夜遇直播号app污版下载网站 迷雾直播app污下载安卓 小奶狗视频app污下载安卓 快猫视频app污版下载网站 蜜柚直播app污版下载网站 好嗨哟直播app污版下载网站 佳丽直播视频app污下载安卓 猛虎直播app污版下载网站 ML聚合下载app视频污版 91香蕉下载app视频污版 蜜橙视频app污版下载网站 柠檬视频app污下载安卓 微杏app污版下载网站 年华直播app污版下载网站 小蝌蚪视频下载app视频污版 小米粒直播app污版下载网站 蓝颜下载app视频污版 金鱼直播app污版下载网站 health2下载app视频污版 蚪音app污下载安卓 浪浪视频app污版下载网站 性福宝app污版下载网站 蓝颜下载app视频污版 九尾狐视频app污下载安卓 抖阴视频下载app视频污版 草榴直播下载app视频污版 泡芙视频app污版下载网站 性直播app污版下载网站 好嗨哟直播下载app视频污版 朵朵直播下载app视频污版 梦幻直播下载app视频污版 富二代app污版下载网站 烟花巷直播app污下载安卓 health2app污版下载网站 雨云直播app污下载安卓 梦幻直播app污版下载网站 青草视频下载app视频污版 探探直播app污下载安卓 九尾狐视频app污下载安卓 豆奶视频下载app视频污版 考拉直播app污版下载网站 花狐狸直播app污版下载网站 青青草app污下载安卓 抖阴直播app污版下载网站 月光直播app污下载安卓 粉色app污下载安卓 火爆社区app污版下载网站 套路直播app污版下载网站 烟花巷app污版下载网站 斗艳直播app污下载安卓